Male Fertility

Personalised Treatment Prescribed by Doctors


Male Fertility

Erectile Eysfunction

What is Male Fertility?

Infertility in males is quite a common issue nowadays. It is a sexual problem which restricts men from becoming fathers as their reproductive system restricts them from impregnating their partners.

Symptoms of Male Infertility

Unable to impregnate their partners, inability to maintain an erection, discomfort during ejaculation, low sperm count, poor sperm motility, low sex drive, testicular injury, and genetic abnormalities like Y chromosome microdeletions, Klinefelter syndrome, or chromosomal translocations.

What Causes it?

Azoospermia, Oligospermia, malformed semen, genetic abnormalities like Myotonic dystrophy and Klinefeflter’s syndrome, medical conditions like diabetes, cystic fibrosis, autoimmune disorders, Vitamin-C deficiency, smoking, drinking and some hormonal disorders.

How Common is it?


men approximately experience some sort of infertility in their lives


of men with 39 years and above have a higher prevalence of infertility


of men are infertile due to low sperm count or poor sperm motility


of men seeking infertility treatment had abnormal sperm parameters

Want to find out more? We worked with our doctors to create this Ultimate Guide to ED

Your personalized Treatment


Our Medical Board

Dt. Zubeda Tumbi

Dt. Zubeda Tumbi

Dietician and Nutritionist

(Weight Management, Diabetology, Thyroid Disorders and Nutrition - Dietician and Nutritionist)

BHSc, MHSc, NET- SET, Ph.D Grants from IDRC Canada and TATA Chemicals, 29+ Years of Experience

Dr. Brahmita Monga

Dr. Brahmita Monga


(Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy - Dermatologist)

MBBS, MD in Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, 10 Years of Experience

Dr. Ashitabh Tiwari

Dr. Ashitabh Tiwari


(Psychiatrist, Neuropsychiatrist and Addiction Psychiatrist - Psychiatrist)

M.B.B.S, M.D Psychiatry, 17+ Years of Experience

Dr. Sandeep Govil

Dr. Sandeep Govil


(Psychiatry - Psychiatrist)

"Male sexual health encompasses various issues and challenges that are often accompanied by social stigmas, hindering individuals from seeking the assistance they need. I strongly encourage people to educate themselves about matters concerning intimacy and explore comprehensive treatment options that incorporate both medical and psychological approaches."

Dr. Sharmila Majumdar

Dr. Sharmila Majumdar

Sexologist and Psychologist

(Sexology, Cognitive Behaviour Modifications, and Idiopathic Infertilty - Sexologist and Psychologist)

"Sexual health often receives insufficient attention in India, leading to the delayed seeking of medical assistance for intimacy and relationship concerns. It is crucial for individuals to proactively pursue treatment, as early intervention yields more effective and viable solutions."


Case Studies

Male Fertility
37 years

Male Fertility

A 37-year-old married man with 82 kg body weight and 24.5 BMI had been facing issues with sperm quality and quantity and was extremely worried about his condition for the past 1 year or more. He used to feel stressed and unsatisfied as his sexual encounters with his partner were short-lived. After the free consultation, the doctor deeply examined his situation and diagnosed infertility. On the basis of his physical and psychological condition, he got suggested a 6-month sexual wellness treatment plan customized according to his needs. After the completion of the plan, he saw improvement in his sperm quality and sex drive, and now he is satisfied with his overall sexual performance. He is even about to become a father soon!

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Male Fertility
34 years

Male Fertility

A father of 34 years with a BMI of 24 had been suffering from infertility for the past 9 months to 1 year. He had been a smoker and occasional drinker. During sexual intercourse, he noticed the amount of ejaculated sperm amount and realised that something is not right. After an in-depth assessment by certified doctors, he got diagnosed with infertility. With the free doctor consultation, he got suggested a personalized sexual wellness treatment plan of 9 months to help improve his sperm count and motility. With regular follow-ups and necessary lifestyle changes, he noticed positive changes in his sexual performance and now he is fertile enough to dream about becoming a father again.

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Male Fertility
40 years

Male Fertility

A 40-year-old father with a 71 kg weight and 23.1 BMI had been mentally stressed out because of his sexual performance for the past eight to twelve months. His sperm quality and quantity were extremely low due to which he was worried about his condition. Out of worry, he opted for expert advice from a professional doctor. The doctor evaluated his case and diagnosed infertility. Based on his medical history, lifestyle habits and psychological condition, he suggested a sexual wellness treatment plan for twelve months. Now that he has completed it, he is able to see drastic improvements in his sperm quality and density, and it even helped enhance his overall sexual wellness.

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Can smoking and alcohol consumption affect male fertility?

Yes, the consumption of both alcohol and smoking more than the limitcan impact male fertitlity negatively. Excessive smoking can reduce sperm count, damage sperm, and impair sperm motility. On the other hand, excessive alcohol intake can hamper the production of hormones and may lead to sperm development. Moderating alcohol comsumption or quitting smoking can improve male fertility.

Does stress play a vital role in affecting fertility in men?

Yes. Stress can be your enemy and affect male fertility. Excessive stress and anxiety can lead to hormonal imbalance, decrease in sperm quality and even bring down the sperm production. It is crucial to manage stress via some healthy practices like relaxation techniques, exercise or even seeking a mental health professional.

Are there any lifestyle changes that can improve male fertility?

Transforming your lifestyle and making it healthy can positively impact male fertility. You need to maintain a balanced nutritious diet, avoid excessive heat exposure, daily exercise or workout in the gym, reduce stress and practice meditation, avoid any drug use and smoking, moderately consume alcohol – all these changes can bring better outcomes for fertility in men.

How long does it typically take to see improvements in fertility with the recommended treatment plan?

The fertility improvements can differ due to a individual’s specific circumstances and the chosen treatment option. Some lifestyle modifictions like implementing a healthier diet and managing stress levels may bring results in a few months. Make sure you have realistic expectations and follow your professional doctor’s guidance throughout the process.

Male Fertility: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

  The term fertile suggests that the person has a well-functioning reproductive system and can produce offspring. Fertility becomes essential since we all at some point want our children. Numerous factors can hamper fertility in one way or the other, however, every problem is treatable with the right medication. A person who faces even the slightest problem in reproducing is termed infertile. Infertility in men is one of the most common issues in males, however, the reasons may vary. Reproduction may sound less complex but there is a checklist that you need to clear before you plan to have a baby. Infertile people can also reproduce if the problem is diagnosed and addressed at the right time.

What is Male Fertility?

Male fertility refers to a man's ability to be able to produce his own children. In order to produce healthy children, the person’s reproductive system should function perfectly. Even the smallest problem can bring drastic genetic mutations and result in infertility. There is also a possibility that even if the person is able to have children, they may have some abnormality due to a faulty gene.  Infertility in men can be understood as some issues with the reproductive system that can arise incapability of having children. One can determine his fertility on the basis that if he is having constant unprotected sex with his partner for a considerable duration, they are still not able to conceive.

How common is Male Infertility?

Almost 79% of males in the age group of 39 and above have shown a high ratio of infertility. Moreover, one out of every 20 men in the world faces infertility at some point in their life. Moreover, infertility prevents almost one in every six couples from having children. It is evident that infertility in men is very common, and is one considerable reason why a lot of couples are not able to conceive. Additionally, there is a considerable population of infertile females equally responsible for the problem 

Symptoms of Male Infertility

The major and foremost signs of infertility in men are the inability to impregnate their partner and not being able to have a child. There are other symptoms as well which may be related to a number of underlying reasons. The major reasons include hormonal imbalance, genetic inherent diseases, imbalanced blood flow near the pelvic area and several others. Some of the prominent signs and symptoms of male infertility include: 
  • Problems while indulging in sexual intercourse may include:
    • Erectile Dysfunction: The inability to achieve or sustain an erection during sexual intercourse or any sexual activity is known as ED or erectile dysfunction. It might not be the most stressful issue, but still, it frequently can cause pain and lower self-esteem.
It is important to understand that ED is not a permanent health condition and it may arise because of other health issues. Any age group can develop erectile dysfunction, which is currently more prevalent due to changing lifestyles and unattainable ambitions in bed.
  • Premature Ejaculation: When a man ejaculates (expels semen) much earlier than expected, this condition is known as premature ejaculation (PE). It is one of the most common issues therefore its prevalence is quite high. A man should be able to figure out the difference between frequent PE and occasional PE.
  • Low Sexual Vitality: It's not required to start a gym or have strong endurance to complete everyday tasks. However, having high stamina and staying energetic in bed becomes crucial for men. A strong and lasting relationship requires high endurance at some point in life.
  • Experiencing pain, lump and swelling near the male genitalia
  • Loss of sense of smell
  • Recurrent respiratory tract infections
  • Gynaecomastia- Enlargement of male breasts
  • Lowering of facial and body hair growth indicates a chromosomal abnormality
  • Low sperm count- The normal range of sperm includes 15 million plus sperm count in terms of mm quantity, and there should be more than 39 million per ejaculation. Anything less can lead to infertility in men
  • The sperm count per ejaculation, at least 40% of the total sperm should be motile, more than that gives you a better chance of increase male fertility.

Causes of Male Infertility

Humans are made to reproduce to maintain their existence therefore it is something very important. In order to ensure that you are fertile enough, you need to go through this checklist of causes of male infertility:
  • Your body should be capable of producing healthy sperm: The healthy sperm should contain genes with a defined DNA pattern. Sightest mutation in genes can lead to scary mutations leading to stillbirth. Apart from this, the reproductive organs of the male should also function properly. The testicles should be fully functional once a man reaches puberty.
  • Semen is the transporter that carries sperms: The semen is the vehicle that carries sperms. In the male reproductive system, testicles produce sperm which is further mixed with semen. Your body should be able to ensure that the right amount of sperm mixes with the semen before ejaculation. Apart from sperm, the level of testosterone should also be normal. 
  • Sperms should be functional: The sperm count should be normal to ensure that the right amount of sperm is expelled per ejaculation. The motility of the sperms should be above 40% and the rest should be immotile. 
Once you have ensured the checklist and know that everything mentioned above is fine, then you can shift to other reasons that may be responsible for infertility. 

Problems within the Body

Problems within the body can cause distress and show various side effects that can affect the fertility of males. It can include causative agents present within the body or outside the body. The majority of them include: 

Infectious Diseases: 

Sperms can be affected by some infections by causing scarring in the path and blocking the travel of the sperms. The main types of inflammation include epididymitis and orchitis. Some major STDs can also cause the same problem including HIV and gonorrhoea.     


The testicles are richly supplied by veins, these become swollen leading to blocking the path. The abnormal blood flow causes reduced sperm quantity and quality. 

Problems while Ejaculating: 

Once the male reaches orgasm, his body starts to release semen in the bladder. In this condition, retrograde semen is released and it does not emerge from the penile tip which is desired. 


Tumours are carcinogenic cells constantly growing and causing the destruction of the neighbouring cells. Pituitary glands responsible for the production of semen can be affected by cancer causing excessive enlargement and non-function. Its treatment is possible by various methods such as chemo and radiotherapy. 


Sometimes the body is not able to identify self and non-self. Thi8s leads to confusion within the cells and the defence of the body is activated. The antibodies are generated against the sperms which the body perceives to be foreign cells, killing them relentlessly. 

Inability of Testes to Descend in the Pelvic Region: 

This is a by-birth problem in which the baby is born with this defect. During the foetal development stages, the testes of the males are placed in the abdominal region which after birth descend to the lower pelvic cavity. In some rare cases, the testes fail to descend into the pelvic region leading to infertility.  

Chromosomal Defects: 

Some unforeseen inherited defects such as Klinefelter syndrome can also cause sterility in males. In this, the baby boy is born with an extra X chromosome which means he is born with XXY chromosome. In such cases, the reproductive organs do not develop leading to sterility. Other such compilations include cystic fibrosis and Kallman’s syndrome. 

Hormonal Imbalance: 

In some cases, the hypothalamus is not in coordination with the pituitary gland which leads to the malproduction of hormones. Additionally, the low production of testosterone is also responsible for low fertility. 


There are endless medications on the market which possess infertility as a side effect. One such medication is steroid therapy. Although steroids have proven to be life savers for a long time, they also show terrific side effects. One such side effect is infertility. Excess use of steroids can lower sperm production in the body and can cause infertility. 

Problems while Involved in Sexual Intercourse: 

Complications related to sexual intercourse such as premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction can sum up to cause infertility in males. 

Lifestyle Changes

Our lives have changed and so has our lifestyle with the passing of time. However, it has its own side effects and one major side effect can be infertility in men or faulty genes in the baby. Let us put light on some of the major reasons for it:   

Drug Abuse:

Anabolic steroids are extremely harmful and cause various compilations. You also have to be very careful about when you start the cycle and ensure that you do not break the steroid cycle. Moreover, drugs such as marijuana and opioids are abused and lead to infertility.

Alcohol Abuse: 

Excessive consumption of alcohol can be injurious and can cause infertility. It decreases the production of testosterone inside the body, decreases the sperm count and also causes erectile dysfunction causing infertility.


Smoking can impact the amount of sperm production inside the testicles which can further lead to ED or erectile dysfunction.


Unhealthy eating habits severely cause weight gain, especially at a young age. This eventually causes an imbalance of hormones and leads to infertility.

Environmental Changes: 

Changes in the environment can greatly influence our body and the way it reacts and adapts. It brings its own downsides which the major include infertility: 

Heavy Metal Exposure: 

Exposure to heavy metals especially the ones present in drinking water can cause health issues and infertility. 

Industry Chemicals: 

For the ones who stay in constant contact with industry chemicals, during production, spray of pesticides or herbicides are at high risk of infertility as they cause a reduction in sperm count. 


Excessive exposure to X-rays can be a major cause of infertility. It majorly leads to a reduction in the production of sperm which gets resolved once the source of X-rays is removed. However, persistent high exposure can cause permanent infertility. 

Diagnosing Male Infertility

In case you are not able to conceive with your partner even after possible tries then you may have to consider getting it diagnosed. Some diagnostic tests you can take include: 

General Medical Check-up: 

A general physical examination comprises an examination of your genitals to determine any inherited conditions, ailments, physical injuries, or chronic complications that are possibly affecting your chances of conceiving. 

Semen Test:

Test of semen includes a complete analysis in which your semen is tested to determine possible problems. Firstly your semen sample is collected for which you need to ejaculate semen as directed by your doctor and submit it in the laboratory. With the help of the sample, your sperm count is measured and its motility is checked. Several semen samples are collected x alternatively to check the patterns and draw accurate results for it. 


Ultrasound is a smart and convenient way to conduct diagnosis as it gives better details about possible problems. It can be either a scrotal ultrasound or a transrectal ultrasound. In this: 
  • High-frequency waves are projected in the scrotum to check possible varicocele complaints. 
  • A lubricated wand is projected inside the rectum to check any blocked path due to complications with the prostate gland. 

Hormone Analysis:

A complete hormone analysis test is conducted to check possible causes. Low testosterone is a common culprit of low fertility, this test allows testosterone analysis and other abnormalities. 

Post-Ejaculation Urine Analysis:

To check the direction of the flow of sperm your doctor will suggest you post an ejaculation urine analysis test. In this, the urine patterns are studied and checked if the sperms are flowing backwards in the bladder or not. 

Genetic Examination:

Some minor changes in the Y chromosome can be responsible for low fertility. In order to check that, one is suggested to undergo a genetic examination to study the genetic makeup of the person. 

Biopsy: It is a one-stop solution for the diagnosis of possible problems as biopsy provides the most minute details of possible complications. In this sample, tissues are taken from the testicle using a needle which will reveal possible reasons behind infertility. 

Treatments for Male Infertility

It is hard to determine the exact cause of infertility because in most cases the real problem is underdiagnosed. Even if you are not able to determine the exact cause, your doctor may suggest a number of treatment procedures that can help you in conceiving.  In most cases, the doctor may recommend checking the female partner as well which will help in better framing the treatment plan. Some treatments to increase male fertility include:


For problems like varicocele, the possible treatments include surgery. Patients who have undergone vasectomy in the past can also consider surgery to reverse the treatment. For patients who have a high sperm count but low motility and everything else is normal, sperm collection is a good option. The extracted sperms can be directly used for the in-vitro production of zygotes. 

Treatment of Infectious Diseases

If the person is not able to reproduce due to susceptible diseases such as gonorrhoea and HIV, it is best to get the treatment of those diseases first. The treatment might cure the disease and help your reproductive tract to restore back to normal. 

Hormone Therapies

Hormone therapies are for those whose body is not able to produce much hormone. Your doctor may suggest hormone replacement therapies and medicines that can help you boost levels of possible hormones such as testosterone and pituitary hormones. 

Treatment of Sexual Intercourse-Related Problems

For problems such as erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation, it is best to take the help of a doctor who can suggest ways to conceive. Medications can also help in such cases. In cases where the couple is facing trauma that is posing a barrier to reproduction, it’s best to take counselling and resolve the problems. 

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

Assisted Reproductive Technology is a treatment in which sperms are extracted by the usual ejaculation method. The semen can also be collected from other donors or surgically through testes depending upon the concern. The sperms are further used to conduct in-vivo (inside the body) or in-vitro (outside the body) fertilisation. The latter is placed inside the female womb for further growth of the fertilised egg.  

Prevention of Male Infertility

In order to stay healthy and maintain good reproductive health, it is essential to take the necessary steps that can help you lead a good life. It is important to note that infertility is not always preventable or reversible but you can still take some steps that can keep you at lower risk such as:
  • Do not smoke but if you do, try quitting it yourself or by taking help. 
  • Keep yourself devoid of alcohol. Even if you consume alcohol, make sure that you take it rarely and in limited amounts. 
  • Keep yourself away from drug abuse because it’s extremely addictive. 
  • Your testicles are made to give your sperms an adequate environment for production. Keep your genitals away from excess heat. 
  • Take no stress and start managing your stress. 
  • Keep yourself away from industry chemicals and other toxic substances. 
  • Get regular checkups to ensure that your reproductive system is working fine and if you suspect signs of any disease, get it diagnosed. 
  References:   https://www.healthline.com/health/boost-male-fertility-sperm-count#6.-Try-tribulus-terrestris https://www.urologyhealth.org/urology-a-z/m/male-infertility https://www.tommys.org/pregnancy-information/planning-a-pregnancy/are-you-ready-to-conceive/how-improve-male-fertility https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK562258/ https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17201-male-infertility https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/male-infertility/symptoms-causes/syc-20374773